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Skating sport, refers to hard-house sports. The basic idea is moving athlete or a couple athletes on skates on the ice with the change of sliding direction and execution of additional elements (rotation, jumps, combinations of steps, supports, etc.) to the music.
Figure skating as a separate sport emerged in the 1860s, and in 1871 was recognized at the I Congress of skaters. The first competition was held in Vienna in 1882 among men skaters.
In figure skating isolated 5 disciplines: men's single skating, female single skating, pair skating, ice dance and synchronized group skating. Group synchronized skating is not yet included in the official program of the competition for this type of skating is the world Championships in synchronized skating.
With 2014 in the program of Olympic games included team competitions in figure skating.
Figure skating in Russia has been known since the time of Peter I. the Russian Tsar was brought from Europe the first samples of skates. It was Peter the great invented a new method of fastening the skates to the boots and created, thus, "promomodel" today's equipment of the skaters.
In 1838, in St. Petersburg published the first textbook for skaters — "Winter fun and art of skating". Its author was G. M. Pauli — gymnastics teacher in military educational institutions of St. Petersburg.
Russian figure skating, as a sport, originated in 1865. Then opened a public skating rink in the Yusupov garden on Sadovaya street. This rink was the most comfortable in Russia and the first days was a training center for skaters. On 5 March 1878 held its first competition of Russian figure skaters. In 1881 part of the "society of lovers skating" consisted of about 30 people. One of the most famous sports and public figures was an Honorary member of this society Vyacheslav Izmailovich Sreznevsky.
The origins of figure skating lie in the distant past and are rooted in the bronze age (late 4th — early 1st Millennium BC), evidenced by archaeological finds such as bone skates, made of the phalanges of the limbs of large animals. Similar findings occur in many countries of Europe, the most ancient and "skates" was discovered on the banks of the southern bug near Odessa.
However, the birth of figure skating, as a sport, is associated with the moment when the skates began to be made of iron, not of bone. According to research for the first time it happened in Holland, in the XII—XIV century. Originally, figure skating was a competition on skill is drawn on the ice a variety of shapes while maintaining a beautiful posture.
The first clubs of fans of figure skating appeared in the XVIII century in the British Empire in Edinburgh (1742). There was developed and a list binding in competitions of figures, and the first official rules of competitions. Artillery Lieutenant Robert Jones issued a "Treatise on skating" (1772), which described all the major figures, who were then known.
From Europe figure skating came to the United States and Canada, where they received a huge development. Here there were many clubs, skaters, developed a new model skates, created its school of engineering. When the 60-ies of the XIX century in Europe with the tour came from the US skater Jackson Haines, it became clear that even the most experienced European skaters have a lot to learn from him.