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Winter Olympic sport that combines ski race with rifle shooting. Since 1993, the official international biathlon competitions, including world Cup and world Championships, held under the auspices of the International biathlon Union.
Progenitor of biathlon competitions are considered military patrols — sport, the rules of which resemble modern biathlon team race. Today, there are many varieties of biathlon, which combines ski racing and shooting sports archery, racing on snowshoes and rifle shooting (biathlon snowshoe) a race for hunting skiing and shooting from a hunting rifle (hunting biathlon). Among the non-winter species isolated summer biathlon biathlon — it combines running and shooting (cross-biathlon), race on roller skis and shooting (roller biathlon), and race on mountain bikes (mountain bikes) and shooting (biathlon mountain bikes). Of all the varieties of biathlon only "classic" winter biathlon, snowshoe biathlon and summer biathlon supervised by the SMEs.
In Russia, the development of biathlon in its present form began only in the early XX century.
The first official national championship in biathlon, involving mainly athletes and "petrolistan" was held in the region of Sverdlovsk in 1957. The first holder of the title of national Champion in biathlon became Vladimir Marinichev, who won on a distance of 30 km with the shooting. This championship gave a powerful impetus to the development of a new sport — biathlon.
Hunting skiing has long been part of life of many Northern peoples. However, consider this activity as a kind of sports began only in the XVIII century. The first official competition, vaguely reminiscent of the biathlon, passed in 1767. The event was organized by the border guards on the Swedish-Norwegian border. Despite such early beginnings, biathlon is not widespread in other countries. For the first time at major international competitions competitions, reminiscent of a modern biathlon, were included in 1924 on I the Olympic winter games in French Chamonix. They were called "competitions military patrols" (in some sources referred to as the "race military patrols") and was held as a demonstration competition (although later the participants were officially awarded medals).
On 30 November 1992 in the French town of Amelie-Les-Bains-Palalda was accepted the decision to secede from the biathlon and modern pentathlon. 2 July 1993 in London at the Extraordinary Congress of the International Federation of modern pentathlon and biathlon was officially announced about creation of the International biathlon Union, curated by the aforementioned Federation. 12 December of the same year in Salzburg began its work in the headquarters of the new international organization. With the separation of the biathlon from the modern pentathlon began the expansion of the competition format. In 1994, in Finnish Kontiolahti hosted the first European championship two years later the first major international competitions in summer biathlon world Championships in Hochfilzen. 26-28 June 1998 was the Third regular Congress of the International biathlon Union, which adopted a decision to secede from the International Federation of modern pentathlon and biathlon.