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Winter Olympic sport that combines ski race with rifle shooting. Since 1993, the official international biathlon competitions, including world Cup and world Championships, held under the auspices of the International biathlon Union. Progenitor of biathlon competitions are considered military patrols — sport, the rules of which resemble modern biathlon team race.
In Russia, the development of biathlon in its present form began only in the early XX century.
The first official national championship in biathlon, involving mainly athletes and "petrolistan" was held in the region of Sverdlovsk in 1957. The first holder of the title of national Champion in biathlon became Vladimir Marinichev, who won on a distance of 30 km with the shooting. This championship gave a powerful impetus to the development of a new sport — biathlon.
During 1920-30 paramilitary ski competition was widely popular in the Red army. The athletes would bridge a distance of 50 km wearing military outfit and carrying army accessories, overcoming different obstacles. Thereafter, paramilitary ski racing with a weapon altered, turning more and more into a sports competition.
This is how patrol race appeared consisting of a 30-km team race which included carrying a weapon and shooting at the finish. The first national team race of a sports-applied value with shooting at the finish was held in 1933. The competition was mostly cultivated in the military sports societies of «CSKA and «Dinamo». After recognition of the biathlon on the world arena it has also developed in the trade union societies. The teams of «CSKA», «Dinamo», «Burevestnik», «Zenit», «FiS», «Lokomotiv», «Trud», «Trudoviye Rezervy» and «Urozhay» started to compete in the national championships.
The big stimulus for the biathlon development were the Spartakiades of people of Russia, which, similarly to Olympics Games, were held once every four years. Only those athletes who have passed the qualifying starts of zonal competitions, which was more than 40 territory-areas, reached the finals of the Spartakiade.
To hold the final starts of the Spartakiades of people of Russia, specialised stadiums were built in different regions: Siberia, the Urals, the Volga region. This all has contributed to the development of biathlon in the country. Currently, there are biathlon stadiums in the following regions: Krasnoyarsk Territory, Barnaul, Novosibirsk, Omsk, Ekaterinburg, Khanty-Mansiysk, Perm, Chaykovsky, Magnitogorsk, Ufa, Izhevsk, Kirovo-Chepetsk, Saint Petersburg, Cheboksary, Murmansk, Smolensk, Pskov and other places.
During 1958 - 2014 period, 36 Olympic champions (11 women and 25 men) and 58 world champions (23 women and 35 men) were brought up in our country.
BIATHLON DEVELOPMENT IN KRASNOYARSK TERRITORY
Biathlon development in Krasnoyarsk Territory can be split into three stages. The first one is the beginning of 1960s to 1970s when the foundation of Krasnoyarsk biathlon was laid and Krasnoyarsk athletes competed in the national championships of Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (RSFSR). A young MOI officer from Zheleznogorsk laid the foundation for biathlon. In 1957 he started to learn tactics for 20-km race with a combat rifle.
In the middle 1960s, the RSFSR national ski and biathlon championship was held in Krasnoyarsk. In Krasnoyarsk Territory biathlon shooting range «Dinamo» was built, where currently the Biathlon Academy is located. Within that period Krasnoyarsk Territory had held two Spartakiades which followed one another.
The most productive biathlon development stage in Krasnoyarsk Territory was a modern development stage: 1990s to 2000s gave the world such famous Krasnoyarsk biathletes as Olga Romasko, Pavel Rostovtsev, Olga Medvedtseva (Pyleva), Evgeny Ustyugov. Krasnoyark biathlete Olga Romasko has won silver medal in 4x7.5 km relay race at Nagano Olympic Games in 1998.
From that moment Krasnoyarsk athletes would always win olympic medals in Biathlon. Olga Medvedtseva (Pyleva) earned bronze medal in a relay race and gold medal pursuit race at Salt Lake 2002. Pavel Rostovtsev won silver medal in 4x7.5 km relay race at Torino 2006. Four years later Krasnoyarsk biathletes won three medals in Vancouver: Olga Medvedtseva earned gold medal in a relay race while Evgeny Ustyugov received gold medal in Mass Start and bronze medal in relay race. During the last Olympic Games in Sochi Evnegy Ustyugov became a two-time Olympic champion: Russian national team won relay race.
Krasnoyarsk Territory team members regularly become part of the Russian national team and win medals in international competition.
BIATHLETES - WINNERS AND MEDALISTS OF WORLD WINTER UNIVERSIADE
Marina Borchukova - 3rd place, individual race (2003)
Sergey Korastylev - 1st place, pursuit race; 1st place, mixed relay race; 2nd place, individual race (2017)