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Initially to the "classic style" are those the types of movement in which virtually the entire distance the skier passes through the pre-prepared trails consisting of two parallel ruts. "Classic" ski moves shared by way of repulsion poles in alternating and simultaneous. The number of steps in one cycle emit simultaneously otnosheny, alternately dulany and beschasny moves. The most common alternate dulany move (applied to the lifting sections and gentle slopes, and in very good slip — UPS and average slope (5°) and simultaneous otnoshenii stroke (apply the plain, on the gentle climbs with good slip and on slopes with a satisfactory slide).
Mixed team sprint (classical style). In the second half of the 19th century in Russia started to develop organized sports movement. 29 Dec 1895 in Moscow took place the solemn opening of the first in the country guiding the development of the skiing organization, the Moscow club of skiers. This official date is considered the birthday of skiing in our country.
In addition to the Moscow club of skiers was established in 1901 the "Society of lovers of skiing," and in 1910, the Sokolnichesky circle of skiers. By analogy with Moscow, in 1897 created a club of skiers "polar star" in Petersburg. In those years skiing in Moscow was cultivated in the winter in 11 clubs in St. Petersburg in 8 clubs in other sports.
In the world of skiing has become one of the most popular winter sports. The first ski appeared in ancient hunters in the Nordic countries. They were like modern snow boots.
The oldest written evidence of the use of sliding skis belong to the 6-7 century ad In 960 skis are referred to as belonging to learning Norwegian court dignitaries. The first use of the word "skis" in Russia refers to the 12 century.
Interest in skiing as a sport was shown by the Norwegians. In 1733 Hans Amouse issued a manual on ski training with a sports bias. In 1767 there were held competitions on all types of skiing (in modern terminology): biathlon, slalom, downhill and racing. The world's first exhibition of different types of skis and skiing equipment was opened in Trondheim, 1862-1863.
In 1877, in Norway organized the first ski sports society, soon in Finland opened a sports club. Then ski clubs began to operate, and in other countries of Europe, Asia and America. Growing popularity of ski holidays in Norway - Holmenkollen game (1883), Finland - Lahti game (1922), Sweden - the mass ski race "Vasaloppet" (1922).
At the end of the 19th century competitions in skiing were held in all countries of the world. Ski specialization in different countries were different. In Norway, much development has been racing cross country, jumping and Nordic combined. In Sweden, racing on rough terrain. In Finland and Russia - race across the plains. In the USA the development of skiing contributed to the Scandinavian immigrants. In Japan, skiing under the influence of Austrian coaches got the ski direction. In 1910, Oslo hosted the international ski Congress with the participation of 10 countries. It was created by the international ski Commission, reorganized as the International ski Federation (1924).